It may seem silly to implement a register module rather than let the HDL infer it, but doing so separates data and control at the most basic level, including various kinds of resets, which are part of control. This separation of data and control allows us to simplify the control logic and reduce the need for some routing resources.
On FPGAs, the initial state of registers is set in the configuration bitstream and applied by special power-on reset circuitry. The initial state of a design is available "for free" and can be returned to at run-time, which removes the need for that control and data logic.
On FPGAs, the hardware reset of a flip-flop is usually asynchronous and so takes effect immediately rather than at the next clock edge, which can cause subtle bugs: a register appears to fail to capture data in behavioural simulation, or changes in impossible ways (within less than a clock cycle) in timing-annotated post-synthesis simulation.
The asynchronous reset is necessary to force a register reset where the control logic to/from the register(s) might be stuck. It is necessary to feed the reset from a clock-sychronous source so registers don't flip value close to the metastability window of a downstream register.
If at all possible, avoid the use of the asynchronous reset and instead depend on the power-on-reset to initially load the reset value. This reduces the size of the reset network and simplifies place-and-route. Also, even if tied to zero, the mere presence of an asynchronous reset inhibits register retiming from happening, which is a crucial optimization to get faster designs with less manual work. Use the plain Register instead, which has no asynchronous reset.
If you need to clear the register during normal operation, use the synchronous clear input. This may create extra logic, but that logic gets folded into other logic feeding data to the register, and would have been necessary anyway but present as another case in the surrounding logic. Having a clear input allows us to get to the initial power-on-reset state without complicating the design.
Let's begin with the usual front matter:
`default_nettype none module Register_areset #( parameter WORD_WIDTH = 32, parameter RESET_VALUE = 0 ) ( input wire clock, input wire clock_enable, input wire areset, input wire clear, input wire [WORD_WIDTH-1:0] data_in, output reg [WORD_WIDTH-1:0] data_out ); initial begin data_out = RESET_VALUE; end
Normally, I would use the "last assignment wins" idiom (See Resets) to implement the asynchronous reset, placing it right after the clock_enable and clear if-statments below, but that doesn't work here: having multiple if-statements when the reset is asynchronously specified in the sensitivity list (as done here) leaves no way to determine which event in the sensitivity list each if-statement should respond to.
Thus, correct hardware inference depends on explicitly and structurally expressing the priority of the asynchronous reset over the clock_enable and clear with nested if-statements, rather than implicitly through the Verilog event queue via the "last assignment wins" idiom (which we use thereafter).
This is very likely the only place you will ever need an asynchronous signal in a sensitivity list, or have to express explicit structural priority. The "last assignment wins" idiom is also one of the very few places where you must use an if-statement instead of a ternary operator.
always @(posedge clock or posedge areset) begin if (areset == 1'b1) begin data_out <= RESET_VALUE; end else begin if (clock_enable == 1'b1) begin data_out <= data_in; end if (clear == 1'b1) begin data_out <= RESET_VALUE; end end end endmodule
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